The Story of Mans Hunt For Free Motive Power and Energy, Perpetual Motion Retold
Moving Towards The End of Energy Crisis
Why to Live with Less Energy?
Exploring Philosophical, Astronomical and Cosmological Foundations of Perpetual Motion in Vedas
Basic Fundamentals of Perpetual Motion
The Suppression of Inventor and Crucifixion of Perpetual Motion
The Mystery of Dynamic Universe:
Truth of Perpetual Motion and Limitations of Science, Exploring Ancient Wisdom
Flaws, Fallacies and Follies in Name of Science, Where Science Went Wrong?
The Story of Mans Hunt For Free Motive Power and Energy Perpetual Motion Retold
Perpetual Motion Retold From Discovery to Innovation. Part II
Councilor Orffyreus. Forgotten Inventor of Perpetual Motion
The Law of Conservation Of Energy A Long Stride on a Wrong Path Part I
The Law of Conservation Of Energy: A Long Stride on a Wrong Path, Part II
Free Energy Revolution, A Brief History of Free Energy
A Treatise on Design of Gravity Perpetual Motion
Energy From Nothing Perpetual Motion Bridges Science Technology and Religion
How Did It Happen? A Brief Story of My Journey of Perpetual Motion
The Loud Cry of A Perpetual Motionist. Is He a Crackpot or genius?
Green Chemistry : Dr. Ramesh Kumar Menaria
Green Chemistry
Postgraduate Department of Chemistry
SGG Govt. College, Banswara
Blogging on the Web
National Seminar
Paper Presented at National Seminar
Favorite Links
Family Photo Album
My Paintings
My Resume
Comment and Contact Me

Full Title Volume 9:

The Story of Man’s Hunt For Free Motive Power and Energy, Perpetual Motion Retold, From Discovery to Innovation.

Part I History of Perpetual Motion in Ancient and Medieval Times 

Volume 9

Length of Volume 9: 550 pages

Preface to this Volume




....The book deals with the history of perpetual motion in new light with a new approach. Many historians have attempted to write history of perpetual motion, but there has been no attempt to deal with the history of perpetual motion as an undivided whole or a continuous development as an integral part of development of technology. By showing roots of perpetual motion in pre historic times, in religion, in ancient cosmology and  philosophy,  this book professes to be more than a general survey of perpetual motion, more than mere  chronological outline of perpetual motion devices. At the beginning we have devoted a complete chapter that deals with necessity of rewriting the history of perpetual motion and difficulty encountered in such an enterprise.


The scholars interested in perpetual motion philosophy will find in Vedic thought an extraordinary mass of material which for detail and variety regarding philosophy, cosmology and astronomy that is based on perpetual motion has hardly any equal in any other part of the world. In Veda idea of perpetual motion gradually unfolds its inner meaning and emerging concepts of perpetual motion from lower level to higher shows a continuity. In Vedas theory is not divorced from practice and real practice of mechanical arts like perpetual motion ensures transformation of nature of man from material to spiritual, from imperfect to perfect, and from manhood to divinity with man in centre and various powers of nature interacting through  him.


In its methods of presenting perpetual motion, this book also makes first move towards studies of the history, and philosophy, which immediately springs from the necessity of man to invent and adjust to environment.  His perpetual desire to control the environment through acquisition of power guides him to perform a large number of activities among which learning secrets of nature by a variety of methods stands supreme. Rituals and magic eventually express his strive towards his own perfection through acquisition of powers equivalent to powers of God. 


Historians, philosophers, and scientist vie with each other and feels that others are rich in vision but lack some knowledge of his field.  To the historian, the scientists lacks perspective and accurate knowledge of history, to the philosopher, the scientists lacks critical skill and depth of knowledge of philosophy, To the scientist, works of philosophers and historians are a great delight but he finds that they presuppose a full knowledge of scientific material and a first hand understanding of nature of scientific work.  Being a perpetual motionist, in representing history of perpetual motion, I have tried to seek a balance between all the aspects -science, history, and philosophy of the perpetual motion.


The study of perpetual motion is interesting from the perspective of history of science and technology, for it illustrates both the search for a perfect machine and the erroneous development of our modern understanding of the energy principles in physics. Perpetual motion inventors provide a unique case study of human psychology, their ingenuity, persistence and optimism in perpetual motion in the face of repeated failures and suppression on account of ignorance of physicist in perpetual motion is exemplary.


History of perpetual motion includes both classical work and less renowned works. In writing the history of perpetual motion, a potentially overwhelming object of study, I have inevitably made much exclusion. I do not have a lot to say about the numerous free energy devices and theory behind them which inventors have proposed to explain their device.


While viewing history of perpetual motion as a whole, Ramananda designate perpetual motion as a continuous process that begins in antiquity with invention of tools.  The series of activities taking place in perpetual motion are shaped, linked, and guided according to differential needs related to the various aspects of forces and society.

Invention of the tools or simple machines, invention of the wheel, its development into windmill, water mill, gears, and clocks and over balancing wheel in course of time, all share common elements, and related to each other, they constitute a continuous spectrum of evolution of man’s intelligence to adapt to the challenges of environment.  Undoubtedly invention of wheel is a big landmark in this continuous history. In present times, perpetual motion is identified with invention of a machine, which would work more than equivalent amount of energy supplied to it. 


Although perpetual motion has been one of the eternal quests of man, his concept of perpetual motion and the dynamics of his quest are moduled according to typical background in which he takes birth and grows.  Similarly, it is normal for the individual to be beset with problems of fatigue, work and labours, his perception of the problematic situation, his ways of approaching it, and his modes of dealing with it, are subject to the influence of his philosophical beliefs, cultural values social norms and skills. 


The main points under the concept of the term ‘process’, as used in the context of perpetual motion may be summed up by saying that:


1.     Process is parallel to the evolution of intelligence.

2.     Needs vary with respect to time.

Idea or imagination precedes invention. Vedic philosophers were first to sing perpetual motion.  Vedic Rishis conceived world as a giant perpetually moving wheel governed by Rita. In Veda, we find a large number of hymns describing numerous perpetual- motions based flying chariots, and feats of Rbhus who were inventors for Gods. The final section of this volume focuses on the important question of whether the idea of "laws of nature" was to be found in Vedic scientific thought; Ramananda answers in the positive, maintaining that the tradition recognized "Rta" within nature as “laws" governing the world.

This volume presents beginnings of perpetual motion and development of mechanical arts in ancient and medieval times.  It critically examines the work of a generation of the inventors who paved the way for development of perpetual motion and various kinds of technologies. In Middle Ages perpetual motion developed in an atmosphere of freedom, by this I mean, science and scientist did not exist at that time, moreover, natural philosophers, learned scholars had nothing in their mind any philosophy such as taught by the fallacious laws of science to suppress the zeal of the perpetual motionist. This volumes shows in details how :


1.     Prehistoric man gradually learned to harness natural forces and exploit mechanical advantage through invention of various tools.

2.     Philosophers first conceived perpetual motion as principle of eternal change in nature.

3.     Indian Astronomers conceived perpetual motion in the form of celestial motions of heavenly object that was perfect.  It symbolized order, beauty, and symmetry. They proposed design of a mercury driven perpetual motion machine without reference to practical application.

4.     In Middle Ages, perpetual motion was conceived largely as form of   natural magic to energize automata.  In the form of automata, it entertained and amused kings and visitors to royal palaces.

5.     During Renaissance, perpetual motion was conceived as a means to supply free power as the needs of society increased.  Necessity is mother of invention.  During this period, inventors devised many schemes to invent perpetual motion machines using natural forces like water, wind, magnet, capillary force, and above all gravity. We have next  volume that examines perpetual motion around  Renaissance……..





i         Preface    

ii        Acknowledgements   

1       The Need to Rewrite History of Perpetual Motion and Physics     

2       Difficulties in Writing Perpetual Motion History  

          2.1 Examination of Claims



Where Technology Meets Religion.”

Ramananda’s Thoughts on History of Perpetual Motion      




          4.1 Roots of Perpetual Motion in Prehistoric Time       

          4.2 The Invention of the Wheel  

          4.3 Perpetual Motion in Vedic Times  

          4.4 Roots of Perpetual Motion in Religion  

          Yantras : Swastika and other Sacred   Versions of Wheel    

          4.5 Cross  

          4.6 Perpetual Motion in Mystic Tradition    

          4.7 Fundamentals of Qabbalistic Cosmogony      







          5.1 Roots of Perpetual Motion in Mythology        

          5.2 Vishwakarma,      

          5.3Hermes Trismegustus: Thoth

          5.4 The Seven Hermetic Principles     

          5.5 Adam and his Arts        

          5.6 Greek Mythology

          5.7 Prometheus          

          5.8 Hephaestus 

          5.9The Self Wheeling Tripods Of The Gods 

          5.10 Athena / Minerva       

          5.11 Hestia : the Goddess of Architecture   

          5.12 Daedalus and Icarus 520 BC       




          6.1 Flying Machines in Ancient India

Speculations on the Structure and Mechanism of Flying       

          6.2 Flying Machines in Medieval Times       

          6.3 Strange Artifacts 

          6.4 Precolombian Airplane Models     

          6.5 Strange and Wonderful, Huge Stone Balls of Costa Rica!        

          6.6 Shape, Speculations about Formation,  

          6.7 Purpose Theory   





          7.1 Evolution of Concepts of Perpetual Motion   

          7.2 The Survivalist Systems        

          7.3 Perpetual Motion in Middle Ages  





          8.1 Magic in Medieval Times      

          8.2 Man’s Dominion over Nature        

          8.3 Greeks and their Anti Perpetual Motion Philosophy        

          8.4 Automatones (Animate Statues)


          i  Golden Attendants of Hephaestus    

          ii  Gold & Silver Watchdogs of King Aeetes of Colchis          

          iii  Bronze Bulls of King Aeetes of Colchis  

          iv  Bronze Giant of King Minos of Crete     

          v  Golden Singers of Apollo at Delphi 

          vi  Eagle of Prometheus     

          vii Heron of Alexandria      

          viii Roman Technology       

          ix Archimedes (b c 2 87- 212)     

          8.5 Greeks and Their Anti Perpetual Motion Philosophy       

          8.6 Greek Astronomy         

          8.7 Hatred for Manual Labor     

          8.8 Further Development Of The Division Of Labour  

          8.9 Christian Attitude towards Technology 

          8.10 Greek Contempt for Experimentation





          9.1 Kautilya’s ‘Arthshastra’ and Status of Mechanical Arts in India      

          9.2 Siddhantas  

          9.3 Brahmagupta (598-668),      

          9.4 Arab Connection 

          9.5 Lallacharya (720 – 790 A.D.)        

          9.6 Bhaskaracharya (1114-1185 AD)


          9.7 Perpetual Motion :A Heritage Of India 

          9.8 Truth Of Perpetual Motion   




          10.1 Alchemy and Perpetual Motion  

          10.2 Church in Middle Ages : Respect to Labor and Dignity

          10.3 Islamic And Arabic Science

          10.4 Mechanical Arts in Middle Ages           

          10.5 Craftsman

          10.6 Forerunners Of Perpetual Motion       

          10.7 The "Scoop wheel" or "Tympanum"  

          10.8 Noria

          10.9 Mechanical Devices in Arab World      

          10.10 Watermill

          10.11 Clocks     

          10.12 Water Clocks (Clepsydra)          

          10.13 Greek and Roman Technology  

          10.14 Egypt      

          10.15 Al-Jazari’s Mechanical Devices

          10.16 Su Sung’s Water Driven Astronomical Clock      

          10.17 Wind Mill

          10.18 Mechanical Clocks   

          10.19 Renewal of Interest in Perpetual Motion    

          10.20 J. N. De La Hire’s Double-Acting Water Pump  

          10.21 Ewbank's Hydraulics - Wirtz' Pump  




          11.1 Magnes- The Herdsman: The Discoverer of Magnet     

          11.2 Wu Ching Tsung Yao  

          11.3 Shen Kua (1030-93)   

          11.4 Picard Petrus Peregrinus’ Magnetic Perpetual Motion 1269


          Villard Honnecarte    

          Drawings from the Album of Villard de Honnecourt     

          Roger Bacon (1214-1294 or 92)





 Violating Law of Conservation of Energy


          11.1 Works of Raja Bhoja 

          11.2 Samarangana Sutradhara  

          11.3 Qualifications of a “Sthapati”-an Architect 

          11.4 Raja Bhoja’s Yantra Shastra       

          11.5 Definition of Machine

11.6 Raja Bhoja’s Theory of Vijayad (Ether) - the Ultimate Bija

(Ultimate Source of Power Behind all Motion)    

          11.7 Prithvi Yantra (Earth Machine)  

          11.8 Other Machines and their Bijas   

          11.9 Qualities of Machines and Their Functions (The Karma of Machines)   

          11.10 Recreational type     

          11.11 Vari Yantra       

          11.12 Dhargraha       

          11.13 Submarines and Ships       

          11.14 Das Yantra       

          11.15 Rathadola        

          11.16 Secrecy   

          11.17 Warfare Machines    

          11.18 Flying Aerial Machines

Wooden Birds

11.19 Ambuchari Vimana  

          11.20 Vaimanika Shastra   

          11.21 Brief Biography of Paramara king of Dhar Raja Bhoja (1010-53 A.D)

          i His Contributions    

          ii Bhojeshwar Temple

          ii Bhoja Lake

iv Large University in Bhojapura        

          vi Bhoja's Military Campaigns   

          11.22 AUTOMATA    

          11.23 Technological Diffusion     

          11.24 Causes of Slow Technological Progress in India 



          Samrat Yantra  

          Jai Prakasha Yantra 

          Rama Yantra    


          Notes and References        

          EEC Series of Books

          Author’s Introduction         




Part II Perpetual Motion Since Renaissance

Hopefully, you will agree with my views that you will find in the pages of my EEC series of books but I am also equally aware that you may not agree with me on certain points discussed in these volumes. Before arriving at any definite conclusions to anything published in these books, I shall advise you to do your own research & contribute your own unique creative insights. My views and thoughts contained in these books are mostly anti scientific establishment, non-dogmatic. They contain explorations of ideas largely found in Eastern ancient Wisdom like Vedas etc, as well as my own creative ideas with freedom of thought. According to doctrine of “Syadvada” in Jainism, no truth is final, therefore, never bound yourself to saying this is the only truth. Truth is always plural and that which is plural is not the “absolute truth”!

Dr. Ramesh Menaria's entire EEC series of books with 18 titles fills up more than 7000 pages. Contents and page numbers of EEC series of books are subject to minor changes as all the 18 manuscripts are being edited and reedited until they finally get published by Deva publishers.

NB: This site will go on line long before all possible topics have been treated; please forgive me if you seek information on a given topic and I have no information there yet.

Dr. Ramesh menaria